Wednesday, October 5, 2016

Amlogic S905 SoC: bypassing the (not so) Secure Boot to dump the BootROM

The Amlogic S905 System-On-Chip is an ARM processor designed for video applications. It's widely used in Android/Kodi media boxes. The SoC implements the TrustZone security extensions to run a Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) that enables DRM & other security features :

Amlogic S905 System Block Diagram

The SoC contains a Secure Boot mechanism to authenticate the TEE image before loading it in TrustZone. And the first link of this Secure Boot chain is the BootROM code, stored directly in the chip.

This articles describes how to extract the BootROM code from this SoC in the Android-based Inphic Spot i7 device.

Technical documentation

Amlogic released a public version of the S905 datasheet thanks to Hardkernel. However, it's heavily redacted, and most parts regarding the Secure Boot or the TrustZone have been removed. But we can still find a lot of technical information in GPL source code packages released by Amlogic & OEMs.
For example, we can find a potential address for the BootROM code:
#define ROMBOOT_START   0xD9040000
#define ROM_SIZE        (64*1024)

Root access over the UART

We start by connecting the serial port (or UART) because this interface could provide a quick & easy access to debug messages & serial console on bootloaders and Linux kernel.
Identifying the serial port on this board is quite simple since there is a port header with labels for the pinout:
UART on Inphic Spot i7 board

We connect an USB to UART adapter to this port. Once the Linux kernel boot process is finished, we have directly access to a root shell.
We can start to explore the (Non-Secure side of the) system. For example, we can dump the partitions :
root@p200:/ # ls -l /dev/block/platform/d0074000.emmc/                      
lrwxrwxrwx root     root              2015-01-01 00:00 boot -> /dev/block/boot
lrwxrwxrwx root     root              2015-01-01 00:00 bootloader -> /dev/block/bootloader
drwxr-xr-x root     root              2015-01-01 00:00 by-num
lrwxrwxrwx root     root              2015-01-01 00:00 cache -> /dev/block/cache
lrwxrwxrwx root     root              2015-01-01 00:00 crypt -> /dev/block/crypt
lrwxrwxrwx root     root              2015-01-01 00:00 data -> /dev/block/data
lrwxrwxrwx root     root              2015-01-01 00:00 env -> /dev/block/env
lrwxrwxrwx root     root              2015-01-01 00:00 instaboot -> /dev/block/instaboot
lrwxrwxrwx root     root              2015-01-01 00:00 logo -> /dev/block/logo
lrwxrwxrwx root     root              2015-01-01 00:00 misc -> /dev/block/misc
lrwxrwxrwx root     root              2015-01-01 00:00 mmcblk0 -> /dev/block/mmcblk0
lrwxrwxrwx root     root              2015-01-01 00:00 mmcblk0boot0 -> /dev/block/mmcblk0boot0
lrwxrwxrwx root     root              2015-01-01 00:00 mmcblk0boot1 -> /dev/block/mmcblk0boot1
lrwxrwxrwx root     root              2015-01-01 00:00 mmcblk0rpmb -> /dev/block/mmcblk0rpmb
lrwxrwxrwx root     root              2015-01-01 00:00 recovery -> /dev/block/recovery
lrwxrwxrwx root     root              2015-01-01 00:00 reserved -> /dev/block/reserved
lrwxrwxrwx root     root              2015-01-01 00:00 rsv -> /dev/block/rsv
lrwxrwxrwx root     root              2015-01-01 00:00 system -> /dev/block/system
lrwxrwxrwx root     root              2015-01-01 00:00 tee -> /dev/block/tee
While the tee partition (Trusted Execution Environment) turns out to be empty, the bootloader partition contains several bootloaders. But not the BootROM because it's stored in the SoC, not the flash.

(Fail at) Reading the BootROM

Since we have root permissions and a potential memory address for the BootROM, we can try to read it directly. The provided Android ROM contains a handy debugfs interface to peek & poke physical memory from user-land:
root@p200:/ # echo "d0070000" >/sys/kernel/debug/aml_reg/paddr              
root@p200:/ # cat /sys/kernel/debug/aml_reg/paddr                            
[0xd0070000] = 0x1000254
This aml_reg driver uses the ioremap kernel function to set up an appropriate kernel page-table mapping for the requested address.

However, if we try to read the hypothetical BootROM area:
root@p200:/ # echo "d9040000" >/sys/kernel/debug/aml_reg/paddr
root@p200:/ # cat /sys/kernel/debug/aml_reg/paddr                            
[  376.546491@0] Unhandled fault: synchronous external abort (0x96000010) at 0xffffff80001aa000
[  376.549396@0] Internal error: : 96000010 [#1] PREEMPT SMP
[  376.554712@0] Modules linked in: dwc_otg dhd(O) aml_thermal(O) mali(O) aml_nftl_dev(PO)
The kernel crashes. So either the BootROM address is wrong or this memory area is set as secure.
Since we don't have other candidates for the BootROM address, let's say the BootROM area is not accessible from the Non-Secure World.

Enter the Secure World

In theory, the Secure Boot chain prevents loading unauthorized code in the Secure World.
A quick inspection of debug logs from the UART during the early phases of boot indicates that the bootloaders are based on the ARM Trusted Firmware (ATF) reference implementation.
ARM Trusted Firmware Design
We will now explore some ways to get access to Secure World.

U-Boot bootloader

Using the console over UART, we can interrupt the U-Boot boot sequence to access to the prompt. From here we can run arbitrary U-boot commands:
Hit any key to stop autoboot: 0
?       - alias for 'help'
aml_sysrecovery- Burning with amlogic format package from partition sysrecovery
amlmmc  - AMLMMC sub system
amlnf   - aml nand sub-system
amlnf_test- AMLPHYNAND sub-system
autoping- do auto ping test
autoscr - run script from memory
However the U-Boot bootloader (named BL33 in the ATF design) runs in Non-Secure mode as we can see in boot logs from the UART console:
INFO:    BL3-1: Preparing for EL3 exit to normal world
INFO:    BL3-1: Next image address = 0x1000000
INFO:    BL3-1: Next image spsr = 0x3c9

U-Boot 2015.01-ga9e9562-dirty (May 06 2016 - 03:36:02)
So at this point we are already locked out of the Secure World. Next.

SMC interface

Secure & Non-Secure Worlds can communicate through the ARM Secure Monitor Call (SMC). When a core executes the SMC instruction, it switches to Secure Monitor mode (exception level EL3).
In the ATF design, the code that runs in EL3 is named the Boot Loader stage 3-1 (BL31). We can find this image in the bootloader partition we've dumped previously. This code is highly critical for TrustZone security so we should explore it.

The open-source ATF code base in the BL31 image facilitates the analysis by reverse engineering, since we can quickly recover the ATF code structure.
Here is the list of registered services that handle SMC interrupts from Normal World:

Registered services in BL31 image

The sip_svc service is interesting because it contains several custom functions developed by Amlogic:

List of handlers in the SIP service
At first glance, functions hdcp22_sec_read_reghdcp22_sec_write_reg look promising because they are read & write primitives for the secure memory. However, they strictly restrict access to specific memory ranges:
Function hdcp22_sec_read_reg decompiled
A quick (incomplete) analysis of other functions didn't reveal any trivial flaw in parameters sanitization (arbitrary read/write bugs). Some of them are quite complex, especially the cryptographic functions, so they have not been inspected at all.

We may be able to trigger Secure World memory corruption from the Normal World if we find bugs in one of these functions, and then achieve privilege escalation to Secure World. However that would require some expert skills to actually exploit them. So let's explore another attack vector.

Bypass the Secure Boot chain

Another solution to get access to the Secure World is to break/bypass/fool/kindly ask the Secure Boot chain at one of its stage. A common attack surface of a Secure Boot chain is the loading, parsing and authentication steps of the next stage.

We don't have access to BL1 code (yet!) since it's stored in the SoC. But we have the BL2 image from the bootloader partition we have dumped previously. So we will analyze the mechanism used by BL2 to parse and authenticate the BL31 image in the hope of finding interesting flaws.

Here start the lengthy process of reverse engineering a binary without any syscall and very few strings to guide our efforts. Fortunately, the BL2 image is quite small: ~40KB. And we have some ideas to save time:

Like BL31, the BL2 image follows the ATF code logic, so reverse engineering efforts are a bit simplified: we can quickly spot main functions & structures defined in the ATF code base.

Another RE trick is to identify the memory-mapped devices accessed by functions to deduce their role.
Several address ranges of these memory areas can be found in the SoC datasheet and the GPL source code. For example, we can expect that cryptographic functions access memory registers dedicated to the hardware cryptographic engine.

Finally, we don't want to spend time reversing open source code, especially cryptographic code because the task is quite hard. And since it's also complex from the developer perspective, we can expect they used a library, which may be open source. So we looked for similarities in function prototypes, call sequence & initialization of context structures between BL2 code and few potential OSS libraries. In our case, we quickly figured out that the cryptographic code comes from the OSS PolarSSL/mbed TLS project.

Analyzing BL2 authentication routine

Once BL2 has loaded the BL3 image from the NAND, the header is parsed. We don't have any information on the header structure yet (not present in the ATF code), but we can notice it starts with a constant magic value "@AML". This helps to quickly locate the parsing code in the BL2 binary.
We combine "guessing" (i.e. looking at the BL31 header in a hex editor) and reverse engineering of the BL2 parsing code to figure out some members of the header structure:
struct aml_img_header {
  unsigned char magic[4];// "@AML"
  uint32_t total_len;
  uint8_t header_len;
  uint8_t unk_x9;
  uint8_t unk_xA;
  uint8_t unk_xB;
  uint32_t unk_xC;
  uint32_t sig_type;
  uint32_t sig_offset;
  uint32_t sig_size;
  uint32_t data_offset;
  uint32_t unk_x20;
  uint32_t cert_offset;
  uint32_t cert_size;
  uint32_t data_len;
  uint32_t unk_x30;
  uint32_t code_offset;
  uint32_t code_len;
  uint32_t unk_x3C;
} aml_img_header_t;
The header indicates that the image is split in 4 parts:
  • header : always 64 bytes
  • signature : RSA-1024, RSA-2048, RSA-4096 or SHA-256
  • cert : x509 certificate
  • code: payload
On our target device, the signature type of the BL31 image (sig_type in the header) is SHA-256. This is intriguing because a SHA-256 hash alone is not enough to provide authentication.
The following pseudocode is the simplified algorithm of the authentication routine in BL2 :
int auth_image(aml_img_header_t *img){
  validate_header(img); // checks on magic value & header length
  hash = hash_sha256(img);// hash whole image except signature
  if(img->sig_type == RSA) {
    return check_rsa_signature(img, hash)
    return memcmp(hash, (char*)img + (img->sig_offset));
We can confirm that the SHA-256 option will only hash the loaded image and compare the result against the precomputed hash in the same image. We could have imagined a more complex solution like a HMAC, but actually in this case only the integrity is checked, there is no authentication.

And even if the loaded image is signed with RSA, we can still switch the signature type to SHA-256 and regenerate the correct hash.
This issue could have been avoided if the signature type was enforced by an eFuse.

This means we can easily modify the BL31 image, the most privileged code in TrustZone.

Customizing BL31 image

In a previous section, we described the SMC function hdcp22_sec_read_reg that can read restricted ranges of secure memory from Normal World.
Time to practice our NOPing-fu to get rid of these limitations and thus obtain full access to secure memory.

Modified hdcp22_sec_read_reg function

We also need to extend the page tables because the BootROM memory area is not mapped. The MMU initialization is implemented in the ATF code base, so again this is easy to spot and analyze in the BL31 binary.
By default, the following memory regions are mapped:
Original list of memory regions mapped in BL31

We extend the size of one of them to cover the BootROM region:
Modified list of memory regions mapped in BL31

The new size of mapped region 0xD9000000 is 0x80000 so it includes the BootROM area 0xD9040000-0xD9050000.
We're almost done with BL31 modifications: we still need to update the SHA-256 hash.

aml_bootloader_tool: parse and rehash Amlogic bootloaders

This tool can parse and regenerate the SHA-256 of bootloaders contained in the bootloader partition. The source code is on GitHub.
Each bootloader is identified by an UUID, they are defined in the ATF source code. In our case, the BL31 image is entry #2:
$ ./aml_bootloader_tool ./dump/bootloader.img H 2        aa640001
fip_toc_header.serial_number:        12345678
fip_toc_header.flags:        0
fip_toc_entry.uuid:        47D4086D4CFE98469B952950CBBD5A00
fip_toc_entry.offset_address:    14000 (absolute: 0x20000)
fip_toc_entry.size:        0x11130
fip_toc_entry.flags:        0x0
magic[@0x0]:        @AML
total_len[@0x4]:    0x11130
header_len[@0x8]:    0x40
unk_xC[@0xC]:        0x5eec9094
sig_type[@0x10]:    0x0
sig_offset[@0x14]:    0x40
sig_len[@0x18]:        0x20
data_offset[@0x1c]:    0x60
unk_x20[@0x20]:        0x0
cert_offset[@0x24]:    0x60
cert_len:        0x0
data_len:        0x110d0
unk_x30[@0x30]:        0x0
code_offset[@0x34]:    0x60
code_len[@0x38]:    0x110d0
unk_x3C[@0x3C]:        0x0
signature:        263BEFAFC5A051C550D31791EC1212576BE65DB8AD365074560F0BABC076D3CA
computed_sha256:    35AD6B284EE2D6B5672DD0958592028D5BF455A6DCD1EB086D8336FB86533853
The hash of the BL31 image has been updated, we can now reflash the dump on the device:
dd if=./bootloader.img of=/dev/block/bootloader
Finally, we reboot the device to load our customized BL31 image in TrustZone.

Dumping the BootROM

The SMC system call can only be invoked from EL1 and above. So we create a simple kernel module that will perform SMC calls to our modified function hdcp22_sec_read_reg in EL3.
This quick 'n dirty hack is based on the Amlogic debugfs driver reg_access. The source code is on GitHub.
Once loaded, to initiate a SMC call, we write arguments to the file /sys/kernel/debug/aml_smc/smc. The first argument is the ID of the called SMC function (0x82000018 in the case of hdcp22_sec_read_reg). The second argument (for this specific SMC ID) is the read memory address. The result DWORD is directly printed in kernel logs (we said dirty).
# insmod ./smc_access.ko
# echo 82000018 D9040000 > /sys/kernel/debug/aml_smc/smc
[  219.092948@0] smc_access: SMC call 82000018 returns: aa1f03e0
The result aa1f03e0 is promising, it corresponds to the ARM instruction: MOV  X0, XZR
To automate the extraction of the entire BootROM memory region, we create a simple script:
$ seq -f %1.f 0xD9040000 0x4 0xD9050000 | xargs printf "echo \"82000018 %x\" > 
echo "82000018 d9040000" > /sys/kernel/debug/aml_smc/smc
echo "82000018 d9040004" > /sys/kernel/debug/aml_smc/smc
echo "82000018 d9040008" > /sys/kernel/debug/aml_smc/smc
echo "82000018 d904fff8" > /sys/kernel/debug/aml_smc/smc
echo "82000018 d904fffc" > /sys/kernel/debug/aml_smc/smc
And finally, we concate all these DWORDS into a file bootrom.bin
$ ls -l ./bootrom.bin
-rw-r--r-- 1 user user 65537 juil.  8 12:43 ./bootrom.bin
$ sha1sum bootrom.bin
bff0c7fb88b4f03e732dc7a4ce504d748d0d47dd  bootrom.bin
$ strings bootrom.bin |tail -22
auth failed, reboot...
gcc version 4.8


The S905 SoC provides hardware features to support Secure Boot, however OEMs can still choose to enable it or not. But even when Secure Boot is enforced, a flaw in the current version of Amlogic's BL2 allows to bypass it. So Trusted Execution Environment cannot be trusted. The good news is BL2 can be patched, unlike BootROM.

I would like to thank @Karnalzi for the help!

Disclosure Timeline

2016-08-08 : Flaw discovered
2016-08-08 : Amlogic & some affected OEMs contacted by email to find a security PoC
2016-08-10 : OEM #1 replies that "Amlogic doesn't provide any direct contact."
2016-08-20 : Second attempt to contact Amlogic by email
2016-09-05 : Bug report shared with Amlogic
2016-09-13 : Status update requested
2016-09-25 : Status update requested
2016-10-05 : Public disclosure


  1. So, why not share bootrom.bin?

    1. Because this is probably a copyrighted work.

  2. -> The good news is BL2 can be patched
    Actually, given that there is a vulnerable BL2 around that is correctly signed for BL1... is it not the case that no matter how much you patch BL2, you can never actually trust the S905 again because it is always possible to put the vulnerable BL2 back on it on again? An app could check which BL2 is present I guess, but as you cannot be sure that you booted securely, any amount of trickery can be going on to fool apps into thinking the BL2 is OK.

    1. I think you're right. Some chips have anti-rollback protections to prevent software downgrading, but I don't know in this specific case.

  3. I enjoyed your write-up and was able to replicate your results. Interesting to note my bootrom varies a good amount from yours, however I'd imagine that's related to the fact that I have an Odroid-C2 and it's not as much of a 'production' device.